SECFND – Understanding Cisco Cybersecurity Fundamentals – Knowledge Club

SECFND – Understanding Cisco Cybersecurity Fundamentals


Mandy Jackson


CISCO Security CCNA Cyber Ops

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The Course Name : SECFND - Understanding Cisco Cybersecurity Fundamentals


The Duration: 5 Days


The Overview:


The purpose of this course is to teach participants basic security principles, concepts, provide fundamental knowledge and core skills needed to begin preparing for a job in cybersecurity.

What You Will Learn:

  •         How to describe, compare and identify various network concepts
  •         Fundamentals of TCP/IP
  •         How to describe and compare fundamental security concepts
  •         How to describe network applications and the security challenges
  •         How to understand basic cryptography principles.
  •         How to understand endpoint attacks, including interpreting log data to identify events in Windows and Linux
  •         How to develop knowledge in security monitoring, including identifying sources and types of data and events
  •         How to know various attack methods, security weaknesses, evasion methods, and remote versus local exploits

The Course Index:


This course allows learners to understand common security concepts, and start to learn the basic security techniques used in a Security Operations Center (SOC) to find threats on a network using a variety of popular security tools within a "real-life" network infrastructure.


Module 1: TCP/IP and Cryptography Concepts

Objective: Describe the concepts and usage of the TCP/IP protocol suite, network infrastructure, TCP/IP attacks, and cryptography.

Lesson 1: Understanding the TCP/IP Protocol Suite

Objective: Describe the TCP/IP protocol suite and its functions.

This lesson includes these topics:

OSI Model

Objective: Describe the OSI model and its function.

TCP/IP Model

Objective: Explain the TCP/IP protocol suite.

Introduction to the Internet Protocol

Objective: Explain Internet Protocol characteristics.

IP Addressing

Objective: Explain IPv4 addressing concepts.

IP Address Classes

Objective: Explain IPv4 address classes.

Reserved IP Addresses

Objective: Describe IPv4 reserved addressing space.

Public and Private IP Addresses

Objective: Describe the difference between public and private IP address space.

IPv6 Addresses

Objective: Describe IPv6 addressing.

Introduction to the Transmission Control Protocol

Objective: Describe TCP protocol characteristics.

TCP Three-Way Handshake

Objective: Explain the TCP three-way handshake process.

Introduction to the User Datagram Protocol

Objective: Describe the UDP protocol and how it differs from TCP.

TCP and UDP Ports

Objective: Explain the use of TCP and UDP ports in network communications. List some of the well-known ports.

Address Resolution Protocol

Objective: Explain how ARP provides the essential service of mapping IP addresses to physical addresses on a network.

Host-to-Host Packet Delivery Using TCP

Objective: Describe the steps required for host-to-host packet delivery using TCP.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

Objective: Describe how the DHCP protocol functions.

Domain Name System

Objective: Describe basic DNS function and operation.

Internet Control Message Protocol

Objective: Describe the use and role of ICMP.

Packet Capture Using tcpdump

Objective: This topic analysis packet captures using tools such as tcpdump.


Objective: Describe how Wireshark is used to capture packets live and to open PCAP files.

Lesson 2: Understanding the Network Infrastructure

Objective: Describe network devices and the protocols running inside the network infrastructure and investigate the logs that network devices generate.

This lesson includes these topics:

Analyzing DHCP Operations

Objective: Describe attacks that target the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol and how to monitor DHCP exchanges.

IP Subnetting

Objective: Describe how to scale IP networks with IP subnetting.

Hubs, Bridges, and Layer 2 Switches

Objective: Describe hub, bridge, and layer 2 switch operation and concepts.

VLANs and Trunks

Objective: Describe the function of VLANs and trunks at layer 2.

Spanning Tree Protocols

Objective: Describe layer 2 spanning-tree protocol.

Standalone (Autonomous) and Lightweight Access Points

Objective: Describe Standalone (Autonomous) and Lightweight Access Points, and their security vulnerabilities.


Objective: Describe the use of routers and the routing process used in network communications.

Routing Protocols

Objective: Describe routing protocols and attacks that can be used against them.

Multilayer Switches

Objective: Describe how multilayer switches operate and how frame and packet forwarding take place on the switch.

NAT Fundamentals

Objective: Describe Network Address Translation (NAT) fundamental concepts.

Packet Filtering with ACLs

Objective: Describe the purpose of Access List Control lists.

ACLs with the Established Option

Objective: Describe ACL operation when using the established option.

Lesson 3: Understanding Common TCP/IP Attacks

Objective: Describe security flaws in the TCP/IP protocol and how they can be used to attack networks and hosts.

This lesson includes these topics:

Legacy TCP/IP Vulnerabilities

Objective: Describe legacy TCP/IP vulnerabilities.

IP Vulnerabilities

Objective: Describe vulnerabilities related to the IP protocol.

ICMP Vulnerabilities

Objective: Describe vulnerabilities related to the ICMP protocol.

TCP Vulnerabilities

Objective: Describe vulnerabilities related to the TCP protocol.

UDP Vulnerabilities

Objective: Describe vulnerabilities related to the UDP protocol.

Attack Surface and Attack Vectors

Objective: Describe the attack surface and its relation to an organizations vulnerability.

Reconnaissance Attacks

Objective: Describe how network data is collected through a reconnaissance attack.

Access Attacks

Objective: Describe how an access attack is used to gain unauthorized access.

Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) Attacks

Objective: Describe MITM attacks.

Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service

Objective: Describe how DoS and DDoS attacks are used against networks.

Reflection and Amplification Attacks

Objective: Describe how a reflection attack is used against IP hosts.

Spoofing Attacks

Objective: Describe the concepts and uses of spoofing attacks.

DHCP Attacks

Objective: Describe the concepts and use of DHCP attacks.

Lesson 4: Understanding Basic Cryptography Concepts

Objective: Describe the basic concepts and uses of cryptography.

This lesson includes these topics:

Impact of Cryptography on Security Investigations

Objective: Describe the impact of cryptography on security investigations.

Cryptography Overview

Objective: Describe cryptography concepts.

Hash Algorithms

Objective: Describe hashing mechanisms and algorithms.

Encryption Overview

Objective: Describe encryption usage and features.


Objective: Describe the use of cryptanalysis to break codes to decipher encrypted data.

Symmetric Encryption Algorithms

Objective: Describe the use of symmetric encryption algorithms.

Asymmetric Encryption Algorithms

Objective: Describe the use of asymmetric cryptographic algorithms.

Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement

Objective: Describe the Diffie-Hellman key agreement and Diffie-Hellman groups.

Use Case: SSH

Objective: Describe uses of the SSH protocol.

Digital Signatures

Objective: Describe the basic security services offered with the use of digital signatures.

PKI Overview

Objective: Describe PKI components and use.

PKI Operations

Objective: Describe PKI operations.

Use Case: SSL/TLS

Objective: Describe a use case for SSL/TLS.

Cipher Suite

Objective: Describe cipher suite concepts.

Key Management

Objective: Describe key management for the secure generation, verification, exchange, storage, and destruction of keys.

NSA Suite B

Objective: Describe NSA Suite B cryptographic algorithms.

Module 2: Network Applications and Endpoint Security

Lesson 1: Describing Information Security Concepts

Objective: Describe information security concepts and strategies within the network.

This lesson includes these topics:

Information Security Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability

Objective: Describe the Information Security CIA triad.

Personally Identifiable Information

Objective: Describe PII as it relates to information security.


Objective: Describe risk as a function of the likelihood of a given threat source’s exercising a particular potential vulnerability.

Vulnerability Assessment

Objective: Describe vulnerability assessment in the context of information security.

CVSS v3.0

Objective: Describe the CVSS.

Access Control Models

Objective: Describe basic models for implementing access controls over network resources.

Regulatory Compliance

Objective: Describe compliance regulations and their effects on an organization.

Information Security Management

Objective: Describe frameworks for information security management.

Security Operations Center

Objective: Describe the SOC components of people, processes, and technologies, and the reason for the SOC.


Lesson 2: Understanding Network Applications

Objective: This lesson describes the use of network applications and how the security analyst can use this knowledge to detect malicious behavior.

This lesson includes these topics:

DNS Operations

Objective: Explain DNS terminology and operations.

Recursive DNS Query

Objective: Describe the process of recursive DNS queries.

Dynamic DNS

Objective: Describe the automated discovery and registration process of the client public IP addresses via DDNS.

HTTP Operations

Objective: Describe HTTP operations and traffic analysis to identify anomalies in the HTTP traffic.

HTTPS Operations

Objective: Describe the use of and operation of HTTPS traffic.

Web Scripting

Objective: Describe how web scripting can be used to deliver malware.

SQL Operations

Objective: Describe how SQL is used to query, operate, and administer relational database management systems as well as how to recognize SQL based attacks.

SMTP Operations

Objective: Describe how the mail delivery process works, and SMTP conversations.

Lesson 3: Understanding Common Network Application Attacks

Objective: This lesson discusses several network application-based attacks. The security analyst needs to be aware of and able to detect these types of attacks.

This lesson includes these topics:

Password Attacks

Objective: Describe password attacks such as brute force and dictionary attacks.

Pass-the-Hash Attacks

Objective: Describe pass-the-hash attacks.

DNS-Based Attacks

Objective: Describe DNS-based attacks.

DNS Tunneling

Objective: Describe DNS tunneling and its use to exfiltrate data out of their networks.

Web-Based Attacks

Objective: Describe web-based attacks and their risk to businesses.

Malicious iFrames

Objective: Describe malicious scripts that are hidden inside inline frames.

HTTP 302 Cushioning

Objective: Describe web site redirection with HTTP 302 cushioning.

Domain Shadowing

Objective: Describe the domain shadowing process used to hijack users' domain registration logins to create subdomains.

Command Injections

Objective: Describe command injection used to execute arbitrary commands on vulnerable web applications.

SQL Injections

Objective: Describe how SQL injections are used against databases.

Cross-Site Scripting and Request Forgery

Objective: Describe how cross-site scripting and request forgery are used to threaten the security of web applications.

Email-Based Attacks

Objective: Describe how email-based attacks are used against enterprises.

Lesson 4: Understanding Windows Operating System Basics

Objective: This lesson focuses on the Windows operating system feature and functionality.

This lesson includes these topics:

Windows Operating System History

Objective: Describe the history on the Windows operating systems and vulnerabilities.

Windows Operating System Architecture

Objective: Describe the Windows OS architecture and components.

Windows Processes, Threads, and Handles

Objective: Describe Windows processes, threads, and handles.

Windows Virtual Memory Address Space

Objective: Describe virtual memory allocation in the Windows OS.

Windows Services

Objective: Describe Windows services and how they are used.

Windows File System Overview

Objective: Describe the functionality of Windows NTFS.

Windows File System Structure

Objective: Describe the Windows NTFS structure.

Windows Domains and Local User Accounts

Objective: Describe Windows domains and local user accounts.

Windows Graphical User Interface

Objective: Describe the Windows graphical user interface and its use.

Run as Administrator

Objective: Describe how to perform tasks in Windows which may require administrator privileges.

Windows Command Line Interface

Windows PowerShell

Objective: Describe the features of the Windows PowerShell.

Windows net Command

Objective: Describe how the net command is used for Windows administration and maintenance.

Controlling Startup Services and Executing System Shutdown

Objective: Describe how to control Windows startup services, and execute a system shutdown.

Controlling Services and Processes

Objective: Describe how to control Windows services and processes that are operating on a host.

Monitoring System Resources

Objective: Describe how to monitor Windows system resources with the use of Windows Task Manager.

Windows Boot Process

Objective: Describe the Windows boot process, starting services, and registry entries.

Windows Networking

Objective: Describe how to configure Windows networking properties.

Windows netstat Command

Objective: Describe how to use the netstat command to view running networking functions.

Accessing Network Resources with Windows

Objective: Describe how access Windows network resources and perform remote functions.

Windows Registry

Objective: Describe the use of the Windows registry.

Windows Event Logs

Objective: Describe how the Windows Event Viewer is used to browse and manage event logs.

Windows Management Instrumentation

Objective: Describe how the Windows Management Instrumentation is used for management of data and operations on Windows-based operating systems.

Common Windows Server Functions

Objective: Describe common Windows server functions and features.

Common Third-Party Tools

Objective: Describe commonly used third-party tools to manage to manage Windows operating systems.

Lesson 5: Understanding Linux Operating System Basics

Objective: Provide an overview of the Linux Operating System.

This lesson includes these topics:

History and Benefits of Linux

Objective: Provide brief history and benefits of Linux operating system

Linux Architecture

Objective: Describe Linux architecture.

Linux File System Overview

Objective: Provide an overview of the Linux file system.

Basic File System Navigation and Management Commands

Objective: Describe basic file system navigation and management commands in Linux.

File Properties and Permissions

Objective: Describe Linux file properties and permissions.

Editing File Properties

Objective: Describe Linux commands that you can use to manage file permissions and ownership.

Root and Sudo

Objective: Describe Root and Sudo commands in Linux.

Disks and File Systems

Objective: Describe Linux storage disks and file systems.

System Initialization

Objective: Describe the Linux boot process.

Emergency/Alternate Startup Options

Objective: Describe alternate startup options in case Linux is experiencing problems or has been compromised.

Shutting Down the System

Objective: Describe properly procedure to shutdown a Linux-based system when you need to bring the system down for maintenance or troubleshooting.

System Processes

Objective: Describe Linux system processes.

Interacting with Linux

Objective: Describe mechanisms for interacting with the Linux operating system.

Linux Command Shell Concepts

Objective: Explore important concepts about the Linux shell and its usage.

Piping Command Output

Objective: Explore Linus Piping command output.

Other Useful Command Line Tools

Objective: Describe other useful Linux command line tools.

Overview of Secure Shell Protocol

Objective: Provide an overview of Secure Shell Protocol.


Objective: Describe Linux f tools and features for managing virtually every aspect of networking and connectivity configuration.

Managing Services in SysV Environments

Objective: Describe the process of managing services in SysV environments.

Viewing Running Network Services

Objective: Describe tools to track the services running in your Linux installation.

Name Resolution: DNS

Objective: Provide an overview of the Domain Name System.

Testing Name Resolution

Objective: Explore the Linux operating system tools to test name resolution.

Viewing Network Traffic

Objective: Explore Linux tools to viewing network traffic.

System Logs

Objective: Explore logging functionality in context to Linux systems.

Configuring Remote syslog

Objective: Configure remote syslog in context to Linux systems.

Running Software on Linux

Objective: Describe requirements to run software in a Linux installation.

Executables vs. Interpreters

Objective: Explore Linux executable files and interpreters that can execute code.

Using Package Managers to Install Software in Linux

Objective: Describe package managers to install software in Linux.

System Applications

Objective: Describe system applications used to serve clients in context to Linux.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol

Objective: Provide an overview of the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol.

Lesson 6: Understanding Common Endpoint Attacks

Objective: Describe various attack techniques against the endpoints.

This lesson includes these topics:

Classify Attacks, Exploits, and Vulnerabilities

Objective: Classify attacks, exploits, and vulnerabilities in context to endpoint attacks.

Buffer Overflow

Objective: Describe buffer overflow vulnerability.


Objective: Describe malware in context to endpoint attacks.


Objective: Describe reconnaissance in context to endpoint attacks.

Gaining Access and Control

Objective: Describe gaining access and control in context to endpoint attacks.

Gaining Access via Social Engineering

Objective: Describe how social engineering is used to gain access to endpoints.

Social Engineering Example: Phishing

Objective: Describe phishing as an example of social engineering.

Gaining Access Via Web-Based Attacks

Objective: Describe how attacker can gain access via web-based attacks.

Exploit Kits

Objective: Describe how attackers can use exploit kit to discover and exploit vulnerabilities in an endpoint.


Objective: Describe rootkit as an attacker tool.

Privilege Escalation

Objective: Describe mechanisms that attackers can use to escalate privileges.


Objective: Describe how attackers use pivoting technique to expand their access in a network.

Post-Exploitation Tools Example

Objective: Provide example of tools used in the post-exploitation phase of an attack.

Exploit Kit Example: Angler

Objective: Describe Angler exploit kit chain of events.

Lesson 7: Understanding Network Security Technologies

Objective: Describe how various network security technologies work together to guard against attacks.

This lesson includes these topics:

Defense-in-Depth Strategy

Objective: Describe the traditional Defense-in-Depth approach to provide a layered security by using multiple security mechanisms.

Defend Across the Attack Continuum

Objective: Describe the security model that works across the attack continuum.

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting

Objective: Describe AAA.

Identity and Access Management

Objective: Describe Identity and Access Management solutions.

Stateful Firewall

Objective: Describe stateful firewalls.

Network Taps

Objective: This topic describes network taps.

Switched Port Analyzer

Objective: This topic describes switched port analyzer.

Remote Switched Port Analyzer

Objective: This topic describes remote switched port analyzer.

Intrusion Prevention System

Objective: Describe Intrusion Prevention Systems.

IPS Evasion Techniques

Objective: Describe Intrusion Prevention Systems Evasion Techniques.

Snort Rules

Objective: Describe Intrusion Prevention Systems.


Objective: Describe VPNs.

Email Content Security

Objective: Describe email content security.

Web Content Security

Objective: Describe web content security.

DNS Security

Objective: Describe DNS security.

Network-Based Malware Protection

Objective: Describe network-based malware protection.

Next Generation Firewall

Objective: Describe Next Generation Firewall.

Security Intelligence

Objective: Describe the use of security intelligence feed.

Threat Analytic Systems

Objective: Describe threat analytics systems

Network Security Device Form Factors

Objective: Describe the three network security device form factors: physical, virtual, and cloud.

Security Onion Overview

Objective: Describe the Security Onion open source security monitoring tool.

Security Tools Reference

Objective: Describe online security research tools.

Lesson 8: Understanding Endpoint Security Technologies

Objective: Provides basic understanding of endpoint security and be familiar with common endpoint security technologies.

This lesson includes these topics:

Host-Based Personal Firewall

Objective: Describe host-based personal firewall.

Host-Based Anti-Virus

Objective: Describe host-based anti-virus.

Host-Based Intrusion Prevention System

Objective: Describe host-based Intrusion Prevention System.

Application Whitelists and Blacklists

Objective: Describe application whitelists and blacklists.

Host-Based Malware Protection

Objective: Describe host-based malware protection.


Objective: Describe sandboxing in context to network security.

File Integrity Checking

Objective: Describe how security analysts use file integrity checking tools.

Module 3: Security Monitoring and Analysis

Objective: This module discusses network security monitoring, data collection, and data analysis.

Lesson 1: Describing Security Data Collection

Objective: This lesson discusses security monitoring and analysis of logs and data collected from multiple sources.

This lesson includes these topics:

Network Security Monitoring Placement

Objective: Describe placement of network security monitoring devices on the network.

Network Security Monitoring Data Types

Objective: Describe the various types of data used in monitoring network security.

Intrusion Prevention System Alerts

Objective: Describe the importance and use of IPS alerts in network security monitoring.

True/False, Positive/Negative IPS Alerts

Objective: Describe true and false positive IPS alerts and their effects on security monitoring.

IPS Alerts Analysis Process

Objective: Describe the process of IPS alert analysis.

Firewall Log

Objective: Describe the context of a security incident in firewall syslog messages.


Objective: Describe the need for network DNS activity log analysis.

Web Proxy Log

Objective: Describe web proxy log analysis for investigating web-based attacks.

Email Proxy Log

Objective: Describe email proxy log analysis for investigating email-based attacks.

AAA Server Log

Objective: Describe AAA server log analysis.

Next Generation Firewall Log

Objective: Describe NGFW log analysis for incident investigation.

Applications Log

Objective: Describe application log analysis for detecting application misuse.

Packet Captures

Objective: Describe packet capture usage and benefits for investigating security incidents.


Objective: Describe the use of NetFlow for collection and monitoring of network traffic flow data.

Network Behavior Anomaly Detection

Objective: Describe network behavior anomaly monitoring for detecting deviations from the normal patterns.

Data Loss Detection Using Netflow Example

Objective: Describe using NetFlow for data loss detection.

Security Information and Event Management Systems

Objective: Describe the deployment and use of SIEMs to collect, sort, process, prioritize, store, and report the alarms.

Lesson 2: Describing Security Event Analysis

Objective: Explore the different threat models that security operations organizations can reference when performing cybersecurity analysis.

This lesson includes these topics:

Cyber Kill Chain

Objective: Provide overview of the cyber kill chain model that describes the structure of an attack.

Advanced Persistent Threats

Objective: Describe advanced persistent threats characteristics.

Diamond Model for Intrusion Analysis

Objective: Describe the Diamond model for intrusion analysis.

Cybersecurity Threat Models Summary

Objective: Summarize cybersecurity threat models.

SOC Runbook Automation

Objective: Provide an overview of the SOC runbook automation.

Malware Reverse Engineering

Objective: Describe how malware reverse engineering can help protect or defend against future attacks.

Chain of Custody

Objective: Describe chain of custody for all evidence and interacting with law enforcement.

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